Friday, June 5, 2020

Down syndrome Causes, symptoms, and diagnosis - Free Essay Example

Down syndrome also knows as Trisomy 21. The disease is the most prevailing genetic disease around the world. It is also the most shared genetic source of intellectual disabilities emerging in about 1 in 400-1500 newborns (Kazemi, Mansoor et. al). According to Research In approximately 95% cases, the extra chromosome occurs as a result of meiotic nondisjunction or abnormal segregation of chromosomes (Kazemi, Mansoor et. al). Non-disjunction is when one cell splits in two. In Down syndrome it is when both chromosomes form into one cell and none go into the other cell form in. The cell division errors result in an extra copy of chromosome 21, which results in the name trisomy 21. The human body contains 23 pairs one from each parent. When an extra copy is made in chromosome 21 it is responsible for extra genetic material. It is well known to be associated with higher maternal age of 35 years of age and older (Larson and Hulten, 2015) (Ghosh, Feingold et. al, 2009). Epidemiology In Down syndrome (DS) Studies began in the mid 1800s when physicians had groups of patients that showed signs of downs syndrome such as short stature, specific facial features such as eye fissures, and flat nasal bridge. The Physician that DS was named after was John Langdon Down, which contributed to the findings that these features and distinctions emphasized on those affect individuals and those who may have intellectual disabilities (Sherman, Allen et. al, 2007). J. Langdon Down stated these distinct findings could be distinguished in the category of DS of his findings. By the 1960s DS identify the main genetic causes and identified the trademark affects of it, which still results in maternal age. It has been estimated that one in seven hundred and thirty two infants in the United States are born with Down syndrome (Sherman, Allen et. al, 2007). For doctors and parents learning that the baby might have DS, the right courses and precautions are to be taken when proceeding with the pregnancy. For doctors making sure the right test and evaluations are done to determine a DS baby as well as properly informing the parents on everything. Research has shown that differences between doctor and parent can show poorer quality of communication (Huiracocha, Almeida et. al, 2017). With this information on the doctors is to properly inform and educate the parents on what courses to take with the diagnosis. Offering support groups and the educational resources they need for what ever their choice is with the baby. Courses should involve support, testing, educating, and options for the patient or parents on the diagnoses they receive. Diagnostic Screening and assessments for Down syndrome is an imperative part of regular prenatal care and checks. There are multiple forms of testing on DS. More common screenings are that most common screening method contains the measurement of a combination of factors: advanced maternal age, multiple second trimester serum markers, and second trimester ultrasonography (Kazemi, Mansoor et. al, 2017). The first conveyed sign linked with DS was the thickening of the neck area. They assessments raise the rate to test for the chances of DS. When diagnosing and determination DS the testing of amniocenteses has been one of the main advances in obstetrical care was the introduction of prenatal genetic diagnosis, primarily by amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (Kazemi, Mansoor et. al, 2017). Amniocentesis is the most conventional invasive prenatal diagnostic approach used in the world. Amniocentesis is done before fifteen weeks of pregnancy is indicated as early amniocentesi s (Kazemi, Mansoor et. al, 2017). This form of testing is controversial in that it has a percentage of causing a miscarriage. Even with this possibility it is the most accurate type of testing in early pregnancy. Intervention in the care of Down syndrome starts as soon as the diagnosis is made. When caring for an individual with DS it is important for structured care. There is not just one way of treatment or care for DS. Managements are centered on each individuals intellectual and physical abilities and needs (What are Common Treatments for Down syndrome, 2017). In addition consideration is taken into affect based on his or her limitations and personal strengths. When caring for someone with DS it is not just the parent or guardian. A care team that can include but is not limited to Physicians, Speech therapist, occupational therapist, physical therapist, Special educators, and social workers (What are Common Treatments, 2017). Each person on a care team has a special role in caring for the individual in some way. Whether they are providing daily care or occasional care, they are vital in support for both the rest of the team and the individual with DS. Providing the proper medical care fro m prenatal to adulthood can is vital in maintaing regular health visit in a multitude of areas. Allowing early intervention in the education system can allow them to start to receive the therapist and care they need to thrive and get assistance. Challenges that come with the Down syndrome vary in degree. A variety of clinical conditions come associated with DS. Heart Defects, Alzheimers disease, leukemia, and gastrointestinal problems. According to research done neurological problems such as Alzheimers are at great risk after the age of fifty, which increases the risk of dementia up to seventy percent (Asim, Kumar et. al, 2015). In regards to cardiac problems a newborn with down sydrome has a fifty percent chance of having a congenital heart disease (Asim, Kumar et. al, 2015). These may include atrioventriculr cushion defect and ventricular septal defect. Looking into the challenges of hematological (blood) problems, Patients with DS has an increased risk of leukemia, which is the result of the presence of gene mutations. Another challenge and health concern is that research shows that up to eighty percent of children with DS are affected by some extent of hearing loss, sometimes complete loss (Pikora, Bourke et. al, 2014) . Even minor hearing impairment will lead to complications in language or speech development. Along with hearing impairment there is an increase of vision impairment, which can usually be fixed with corrective lenses. With having health problems the increase of mental illness is also increased. Along with health condition, Different mental illnesses report has been high results of anxiety and depression (Pikora, Bourke et. al, 2014). With these results it can bring up the issues of how to treat the individual with either therapy or medication when combining it with other challenges of DS. In addition to these health condition that can affect the individual in major ways more challenges can be body weight conditions, thyroid conditions, muscle, bone, and skin issues, and eye and vision conditions (Pikora, Bourke et. al, 2014). All of these health issues can affect the daily life of the individual with DS.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Definition of a Brane in String Theory

In theoretical physics, a brane (short for membrane) is an object which can have any number of allowed dimensions. Branes are most popular for their presence in string theory, where it is a fundamental object, along with the string. String Theory String theory has 9 space dimensions, so a brane can have anywhere from 0 to 9 dimensions. Branes were hypothesized as part of string theory in the late 1980s. In 1995, Joe Polchinski realized that Edward Wittens proposed M-Theory required the existence of branes. Some physicists have proposed that our own universe is, in fact, a 3-dimensional brane, on which we are stuck within a larger 9-dimensional space, to explain why we cant perceive the extra dimensions. Also Known As: membrane, D-brane, p-brane, n-brane

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Wk2Assgn - 706 Words

Application Week 2- Daniel Johnson Walden University Children develop quickly at a young age. Young children under the age of six are capable of making thoughtful decisions about their behavior and environment (Epstein, 2003). They may even try to explain their behavior to others. In the case of Josh, a three year old boy that I will use for my observation and assessment project, social skills are still in the process of being developed and he hasnt begun to really start speaking at this point. After interviewing Joshs parents I was told that Josh says very few words and doesnt speak at all in sentences. He does, however, include himself socially with other children and plays easily with them. He understands English and Spanish. His†¦show more content†¦Observation Plan Joshs parents are concerned that Josh is developing slower than his peers in the social development category because of his lack of communication verbally. I explained to his parents that I will observe his behavior over a few week period in a social setting in the late morning at the child care center in the gym while the mother is working out. She says that this will be the best place to observe his behavior in a social setting because there are several other children there that are the same age as Josh. The mother states that Josh is alert most of the time. He wakes easily and can go to sleep easily or stay awake late if the need arises. The parents want to know if he is developing socially at the same rate as his peers or if they should be watching closer for any signs of special needs. The other concern that the parents mentioned was regarding Josh being observed. They wanted to make sure that this would be done without Josh realizing that I was observing him. I assured the parents that he would not know that he was being observed. I will be looking to see how Josh engages and interacts with other children in the child care room at the gym. I will see if he tries to speak while he is playing with them and if he shows any type of aggression or retraction from being around others. The parents state that Josh will throw things without any warning and for no apparent reason. I tried to ease their minds by

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Police Department Roles and Functions free essay sample

All departments work together to protect citizens, prevent crime, and solve crimes wealth their community. * What are the principal roles and functions of police organizations and their role as it applies to the law? * Local law enforcement protects citizens and maintains law and order within their assigned jurisdiction. Local law enforcement patrols communities to deter crimes through their visual presence. Law enforcement officers investigate crimes, gather evidence, and make arrests of offenders (Gabon Low, 1973). Local law enforcement can be broken down Into two different agencies, city police and Sheriff Departments.City police are responsible for conducting their roles and functions within city Limits or their assigned Jurisdiction through their established departments. Department responsibilities can include specific patrolling to deter crime with a deferent department with specific responsibilities to investigate crimes. * Sheriff Departments are tasked with policing the whole county Jurisdiction. The Sheriff Department conducts the same roles and function of local law enforcement departments. Sheriff Departments have what are called deputies that patrol county jurisdictions, investigators, and a coroner.Sheriff Departments are also responsible for operating county Jails. * State police have the role of ensuring safety of people with the entire state. State police agencies include highway patrol officers and investigation personnel. State police officers known, as highway patrol is responsible for policing state highways and Interstates. Their functions include making traffic stop violations to highway trafficking crimes (Scott, 2009). State police will Investigate rimes across Individual county lines where local Jurisdiction Is limited.The type of crime committed in the state will determine which agency within the state will take the lead. * Federal law enforcement agencies have authority and jurisdiction over the entire nation. Federal law enforcement is the responsibility of the Department of Justice with each agency responsibility for specific functions in order to keep the nation safe. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is tasked with responsible for combating drug related crimes, and U. S. Marshal are responsible for enforcing federal laws and security of federal courts (Department of Justice, 2012). Federal police typically do not patrol like local and state agencies do. * What are the various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal level and the roles and functions of each? * * There are many various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal levels with their roles and functions being different. Each agency handles policing responsibilities within their Jurisdiction. Federal levels of policing have authority to take action only on the federal level when federal laws are broken. State and local police agencies enforce the laws governed by the state within their Jurisdiction.When crimes on the state level cross state lines, federal agencies get involved. Example, if crimes are committed within the state, state agencies investigate and attempt to make arrests because it is their Jurisdiction. If someone commits a crime within a state and then flees to another state, the federal policing agencies can assist in seeking Justice. The Patriot Act has given authority to enforce federal laws for federal investigations at the state level. The result of these roles and functions allow or local, state, and federal agencies work to better police communities. * What are the roles and functions of patrol work?Provide a list. * Patrols serve many functions for police work. Some commonly used methods of patrol include: * Random Patrol * Directed Patrol * Aggressive Patrol * Saturated Patrol * Random Patrol consists of officers patrolling areas in a random way so that patterns cannot be detected. Random patrols are designed detect crimes taking place and to deter crimes from taking place due to officer patrol presence. Directed patrol is designed to target hot spots or areas known from high crime rates. Crime data is collected and it can be determined what areas and at what times crime is likely to occur.By patrolling at these times, crime can be deterred. Aggressive patrols consist of frequent traffic stops and questioning by officers to draw attention. The attention drawn by these actions can serve as a major deterrence of crime. A saturated patrol is effective by placing a large number of patrols within the same areas. The most common form of police patrolling is with an automobile (Grant Terry, 2012). Automobile patrols have an advantage because they can cover a large area faster than other means of patrol and have faster response times (Grant Terry, 2012).However, automobile patrol has limitations. Many times the officer in the car has limited visibility of what is taking place around them. The second most used method of patrolling is by foot. Foot patrols are good because they offer officers greater visibility of actions taking place around them. Officers conducting foot patrols are limited on the areas that they can cover. Bike patrols are used to cover areas that automobiles cannot access. Areas such as malls or bikes are great areas to use bike patrols. The least used method of patrol is horse patrols.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Volkswagen Polo Product

Introduction The Volkswagen Group is one of the world’s largest car makers. Specifically, the group is ranked third in the entire world in the automotive industry.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Volkswagen Polo Product specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The group has several branches across the world and their marketing communication strategies in these regions are influenced by a unique consumer behaviour culture of each market region. Besides, the group has proactively rolled successful marketing strategies that classify the targeted market segments and creation of relevant advertisement messages that directly and positively improve their sales. Several marketing communication tools and different media have been employed by the group across its branches which operate independently of the mother company. The treatise will attempt to explicitly review different marketing communication policies that the Gro up has adopted in China and the United Kingdom branches through consumer behaviour and marketing communication theoretical perspectives for the Volkswagen Polo product. The paper concludes by offering recommendations to make the current marketing communication strategies for the Volkswagen Polo product more effective. International Marketing Strategies of Volkswagen Polo Product in China Volkswagen China Group Market Segmentation strategy In the product market, life style defines the activities clients are involved in, beliefs, opinion, health aspects, and interests. As defined in the ‘Activities, Interest, and Opinion marketing model’, life style directly dictates purchasing behaviour and preference (Anbu Mavuso 2012).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chinese population consists of many middle income families who have continued to be more conscious of costs an d sustainability of automobiles they purchase (Fields 2010). Specifically, the cosmopolitan Shanghai city has a comfortable percentage of high market clients who have fully embraced Volkswagen Polo brand because of its affordability as compared to other automobile models. Besides, they tend to associate with sophistication and have money to spend. The middle and high social classes of clients are the key target this product. These groups are heavy spenders in automobile, especially those that promise unique aspects and have unique features such as those incorporated in the Chinese Volkswagen models (Ashtiani et al. 2011). As the issue of the need for safety and green living penetrate automobile industry, Chinese clients have increasingly grown shy from environmental unfriendly automobile to friendly automobiles that are efficient. The target group has a peculiar buying motive for the Volkswagen Polo product since the company incorporated the aspects of green living in this automobil e model that rhyme with the conservative culture of the Chinese (Fornell 2002). Besides, a good percentage of sales in China are generated by referrals from satisfied customers who acted as marketing agents for the company on the aspects of affordability, efficiency, and reliability of the Volkswagen models. The introduction of more efficient technologies has enabled construction of lighter, less expensive, and more powerful Volkswagen Polo brands such as the unique Golf brand for the Chinese market.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Volkswagen Polo Product specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, there has been a global rise in the hobby of driving the Gold model and the application of a model such as sport utility for the young consumers’ bracket (Farris, Neil, Pfeifer 2010). The target market for the new Golf brand in China is individual users, government agencies, and military units. However, it is worth noting that each of the target users mentioned is unique and has different marketing and pricing strategies that can be adjusted in accordance to prevailing market conditions in China. Selling the Volkswagen brands in China is no longer using the indirect method distribution channel; however, caution has been taken to ensure that middlemen are minimized. Minimizing the middlemen is essential in ensuring profit maximization and that consumers are not overcharged since every middleman charges an extra profit or commission for the goods they sell (Hardester 2010). Advertisement messages Advertisements are very manipulative and use tactics that directly and involuntarily appeal to the mind of the target person. Despite ignorance of the same and disbelief of their effects, advertisements remain complex and significant in the choice of products owned by an individual. Usually, advertisements appeal to memory or emotional response. As a result, it creates an intrinsic motivation r esponse that triggers the mind to activate affiliation, self-acceptance, and feign community feeling. In the end, advertisements succeed in appealing to emotions through capitalization on biases and prejudices of people (Freshwater, Sherwood, Drury 2006). Therefore, the response to an advertisement will emaciate from the bandwagon technique which heaps pressure on the mind to follow the perceive crowd.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reflectively, the successes of Volkswagen promotion messages are deeply entrenched in the principle of keeping reliable and professional reputation in exchanging ideas and convincing customers. Therefore, through timely appeal to emotions and self-prejudice, the Volkswagen China Group has realized that the human mind is often skewed towards embracing the ‘perceived goodness’ and need to identify with ‘the ideal’ in the packaging of the Golf model as the third generation green automobile in their television advertisements (Hill Westbrook 2010). Interestingly, these aspects are clearly painted as perfect in the various advertisements about products and services through the use of bright and powerful communication themes such as the brands outshining a tiger in a real time race. These pop up memories will actively reminisce and provoke an involuntary response when noticed in an advertisement. For instance, the Volkswagen China has largely succeeded in impleme nting this aspect of ‘jumping the queue’ ahead of other competitors through visible and inducing signs all over the Chinese region. Upon noticing the signs, the mind will perceive them to belong to the Volkswagen Company, irrespective of the physical geography at the moment. These advertisements erected signs endeavours to cue the visual mental aspect of a person into a particular brand of the different brands of the automobile company (Hill Ettenson 2005). Interestingly, this strategy has proven relevant in the case of Volkswagen China Company, which has remained dominant due to perception people associate the advertisement signs with. Appropriateness of the advertisement messages in China The advertisement messages are very effective in terms of attention since they are decorated with simple to understand scenes besides the warm red colours common in the Chinese culture. The strategically placed background red colour in Volkswagen China advertisement messages is an e ye catcher associated with pomp, speed, and sophistication (Keller 1998). In addition, the targeted viewer would immediately develop curiosity to understand the symbolic importance of the Golf model outshining the powerful tiger in a real time race. As a result, it creates an intrinsic motivation response that triggers the mind to activate affiliation, self-acceptance, and feign community feeling towards the Volkswagen brands. In the end, these advertisements succeed in appealing to emotions through capitalization on biases and the middle and high income clients in China. The use of glittering generalities on a product or service aims at influencing the involuntary urge in the mind, to identify with attractiveness or glittery of the product as painted in colourful advertisement. Often, an average mind would easily be influenced by the brightness and attractive presentation. In the process of decoding this message, mind is actually tuned towards accepting the product as perfect and v ery attractive (Holt Quelch 2009). Coupled with proven performance, a customer would purchase such as product based on the influence of the glittery on the mind. Through the envisioning creation of simultaneous but independently functioning needs to identify with attractiveness, many Chinese customers have been swayed into buying the Volkswagen China’s appeal when purchasing automobiles. For instance, the Golf and Polo have created authoritative assertion that directly appeals to positive emotions among the target audience of the pitched idea (Bowden 2009). Reflectively, Volkswagen China Group has capitalized on endorsements through testimonials from outstanding figures to promote sales. Factually, in subtle difference makes image stereotyping a perfect situation in the minds of target persons. Therefore, when the image of the user as projected in such an advertisement resembles the perceived satisfaction of a customer, such a party would aspire to access the same benefits f rom use as indicated in the image shown. In the advertisement, the company has internalised the need for uniqueness in display, space and prominence to easily woe the mind into concentrating on the Volkswagen brands in China (Mangram 2012). Through advertisement, the Volkswagen China Group has ensured that its probability of salience is doubled, especially on automobile brands that are perceived as important in daily life, such as the Golf model renowned for its unique design, smaller size but very spacious and ideal for daily activities due to its navigational ease. Promotion has developed to become a significantly influential part of the marketing mix. This has played a significant role in defining the relationship that exists among organizations and their customers. Marketing communications are made up of the specific messages and the media used to communicate them. The increasing levels of competition among the increasing numbers of products in the markets have forced individual s and organizations to adopt strategies to make them more visible in the market through creating awareness. The type of media used has varying effects on the way the communication is perceived by the public. The efficacy of the type of media used depends on a variety of factors which should all be analysed in order to ensure that the most applicable choices are made (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best 2010). The company has successfully used social media (television advertisement, online advertisement) and print media such as their monthly magazine and billboards on the various Volkswagen Polo brands. Marketing communication tools and media in Volkswagen China Group Media has emerged as an important tool for organizations and individuals due to its ability to bridge the gap between producers and consumers in the business metrics. This is especially true for the written media, which has widely been used by the Volkswagen China to draw attention of the consumer on new or already existing au tomobile brands that the Group offers in the complex trading arena. The effects of written media on marketing communication has led to suitability of marketing approaches at times, while at others, the approaches have been praised for their authoritativeness towards informing the public (Karamitsios 2013). For instance, the Volkswagen China Group’s quarterly magazine about its brands has remained a very effective tool for marketing communication on current modifications, developments and what is new about Volkswagen brands. Written in Chinese, the magazine has captured the imagination of the conservative Chinese consumers who have actually subscribed to receive every new copy. Besides, the television advertisements have been christened as the real pride of Chinese roads and have actually swayed thousands of customers to purchase the Volkswagen brands. For instance, in 2014, the group realized a sales margin of more than 2 million units following the successful re-branding of the promotional marketing of the brands in online media, television, written media, and social media. Significance of communication activities for the Polo product According to behavioural psychologists such as Kotler, Adam, Denise, and Armstrong (2009), behaviours and attitudes can be changed through conditioning. Repetition of an act, for instance, through constant advertisement leads to behavioural changes that may be beneficial or detrimental to a company (Kotler et al. 2009). This indicates how the media can, and has been used to reinforce consumer behaviours. Communication activities, therefore, are taken to represent the official position of the organization on a product or service by the consumers. Communicative activities in the two companies have led to doubled sales in the last decade since the products are branded and presented in persuasive ways that easily skew the minds of potential buyers (Menon 2006). Specifically, through communication strategies, Volkswagen China has expanded its market share and penetrated the competitive automobile industries in the region and beyond. The different contents of marketing communication, but dealing with similar issues, have an accumulated impact on the individual’s perception about a subject. This means that the more an issue is covered in terms of being published in a marketing medium, the more importance is allocated to the issue (Roth 2008). Since the public has no frame of reference to base and compare these communications with, the promotion message is taken at a face value. This means that the consumers base their opinions on the products on the messages from the producers. If an automotive company, for example, came up with a vehicle that did not use the conventional sources of energy, but drew energy from the atmosphere, the information the automotive company would use to advertise their product would be what would be considered as the guideline to form opinions on the new kind of automotive ( Motavalli 2013). The same aspect has promoted growth in the Volkswagen China for its Polo brand since its communication activities have led to the general acceptance of the model in the market. Challenges of practicing IMC Although marketing communications have been praised for their long life spans and their ability to be stored for future reference, their use can be detrimental to the organization. This is because of the fact that they can be constant reminders to the public of the failures of a company. If an organization uses print or social media to extensively promote a service or product, and that service or product turns out to be substandard or defective, the public would have some restraint in engaging in a business relationship with such a company (Jin, Suh, Donavan 2008). For instance, the recall of more than 6,000 Polo models within China in the year 2013 due to a defect in the accelerator has affected the credibility of the company. In fact, the company recorded a dro p of 13.5% in sales the year 2014 following this incident. With the evidence of the company’s failure lying around in the form of print or social media, consumers would take a long time in coming to trust such an organization again. This means that while written communication acts to add confidence to the buyers about a product or service at times, it can also lead to loss of public confidence with a company or product once inconsistencies are identified by the consumers, especially when the business lacks a well-built structure and policies as in the case of large corporations (Saxena 2012). Recommendations to overcome the IMC challenges Essentially, the success of a marketing plan depends on proper alignment of a functional team who is responsible for the creation of flexible but quantifiable measurement tracking tools for reviewing results periodically. Reflectively, this product team should have the essential knowledge in social media and tools used in marketing. Besides quality in service delivery and customer satisfaction depends on the support team. Therefore, customer retention is achievable through the creation of reliable, informed, and passionate support team. In addition, the plan should include a monitoring matrix that maps out potential competitors and identify online weaknesses and strength of the clients (Rust, Zeithaml, Lemon 2004). The Volkswagen China Group will eventually need to embrace more traditional media marketing in order to keep growing, especially when targeting clients for the Polo brand. In order to effectively reach such audience, the marketing communication plan will suggest the best advertisement strategies to cover its wide market area (Simon 2007). The company will definitely have to branch out beyond its target market due to the brand dynamics and the need to expand market base. The company will have to decentralize its marketing strategies to meet the specific demands or consumer behaviour if it decides to implemen t internalisation strategies that will be proposed (Bowden 2009). These aspects influence the need to carry out a comprehensive marketing communication plan the Volkswagen China Group for the Polo brand. There is need to design an appropriate communication plan consisting of a simple but well thought message and a complete channel. The communication channel is complete when the decoder and encoder can decipher the communication codes in the form of images and letters that appeal to the client. Any integrated marketing plan should have a functional model that will cue the mind of a customer towards a product or service. The functional model comprises of elements such as awareness, interest, desire, and action to ensure that the Polo model’s marketing strategies match the interests and desires of the target market within China. This is referred to as the AIDA Model (Yelkur 2011). The element of awareness is related to brand knowledge or visibility among other alternatives. The element of interest comes after awareness. Interest is developed out of a need for a product or service. This interest may activate the desire to purchase the product to meet the need because of preference. In the end, a customer may take the action of purchasing. Therefore, a stratified marketing communication plan should integrate the above elements to easily convince the customer to purchase the Volkswagen Polo product. This may be achieved through designing a relevant advertisement, critical public relations exercise, and continuous sales promotion. Besides, it is important to integrate personal selling through referrals and direct marketing, especially for the older customers who depend on product performance history in purchasing an automobile. Since the world has become a village, the marketing plan for the Volkswagen Polo may adopt an appropriate medium that appeals to the target audience. In the ideal, there should be a mixture of the traditional marketing channels and the modern marketing channels such as online marketing and social media. It is important to plan for the integrated marketing communication and create success measurement parameters. The parameter is meant to check goal achievement. In addition, the whole plan should be managed within a predetermined budget range, which is derived through the rule-of-thumb and objective-and-task (Bowden 2009). To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the current bomb internet channels used by the Volkswagen China Group, for reaching the youthful consumers, should be tailored to encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and a lifetime relationship between the airline and its clients. These will be achieved through the following ways; Website search engine optimisation (SEO) The Volkswagen China Group should optimise its search engine to improve on its online brand visibility among the youthful clients in China who are interested in the Polo brand. Search engine op timisation can be achieved through installing ‘plug-ins that possesses extra features such as page navigation and thumbnail within the company’s website. Specifically, this proposed system in Google will consist of a multi tab page that will serve different offers and specifications of different brands of the Polo model to online youthful customers. Thus, recruiting independent ‘bloggers’ to ‘blog’ about the Volkswagen China Group’s Polo brand will give the company a competitive advantage in marketing its products to youthful clients across China. This promotional strategy has been successfully applied by the Volkswagen UK Group, which has a strong global SEO for its Polo brands. Besides, optimising the link referral has the potential of making the company’s advertisement website to go viral among the youths within six months because the unique cookie will spread to the phones of primary and secondary users (Bowden 2009). The SEO may also be tailored to include a unique cookie which is transferable to the visitors of the Volkswagen China Group website. The unique cookie for the website will be transferred to all primary and secondary visitors to this site hence broadening the spread information on this website. Optimising the SEO has the potential of creating a long term loyalty among young clients. For instance, Volkswagen UK Group’s SEO strategy has successfully increased the percentage of young customers who buy the Polo model by 20% in the last three years. The potential of the referral link approach is that it will improve the visibility of the company’s products among the targeted clients. For instance, the Volkswagen China Group’s website should carry out a link reference promotion where the website visitor with the highest number of referral links is rewarded with a free Polo car (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best 2010). Social media (Facebook and Twitter) Through timely appeal to emo tions and self-prejudice, a marketing manager is in a position to realize that the mind is often skewed towards embracing the ‘perceived goodness’ and need to identify with ‘the ideal’ in the packaging of a product or service. Social media, especially Twitter and Facebook, has gained popularity among the potential young customers of the Polo brand in China, who use these sites as interaction models to share flight culture and exchange ideas. The Tweeter and Facebook fan pages are ideal tools for branding and community following building for the Volkswagen Polo product, especially among the targeted clients. For instance, the Volkswagen UK Group has grown to its current position due to its successful fan page marketing. This will allow the clients to interact and let users to add content to align to different orientations of the company’s brand (Bowden 2009). It will help the company to reach the targeted young customers by skipping or bypassing the t raditional gatekeepers, such as written magazine publishers, and placing them online so that customers can get to know about the Volkswagen Polo brands directly. Properly modified fan pages will reassure the young customers of the aspects of affordability and quality of the Volkswagen Polo product within China. Through massive recruitment of young fans on the Twitter and Facebook pages, the Volkswagen China Group will not only benefit from an increased traffic of online compliments, but also record high rates of customer loyalty as most youthful customers are influenced by reactions from those they perceive as sharing the same youth culture. This strategy is meant to position the company as a market leader in terms of customer satisfaction tracking and response among the targeted clients for the Polo model (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best 2010). Conclusion Marketing communication strategies are important in aligning a company towards the target market in order to achieve optimal sales. The main determinants of a successful marketing communication plan lie in the proper brand alignment and research on segmentation. Volkswagen Group in China has successful IMC since their strategies are skewed towards customer Centricity for the dynamic Volkswagen Polo product. Reference List Anbu, J, Mavuso, M 2012, ‘Old Wine in New Wine Skin: Marketing Library Services Through SMS-Based Alert Services’, Library Hi Tech, vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 310-320. Ashtiani, C, Cullen, G, Davis, P, Greenwald, J, Hardigan, P, Eladio, K, Zimmerman, D 2011, Plug in electric vehicles: A practical plan for progress, School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University, Indiana. Bowden, J 2009, ‘The Process of Customer Engagement: A Conceptual Framework,’ Journal of Marketing Theory Practice, vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 63-74. Farris, P, Neil, P, Pfeifer, D 2010, Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance, Pearson Education, Inc., New Jers ey, NJ. Fields, E 2010, ‘A Unique Twitter Use For Reference Services’, Library Hi Tech News, vol. 6 no. 7, pp. 14-15. Fornell, C 2002, ‘A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 5 no. 6, pp. 6-21. Freshwater, D, Sherwood, G, Drury, V 2006, ‘International research collaboration: Issues, benefits and challenges of the global network’, Journal of Research in marketing, vol. 11 no. 4, pp. 295-303. Hardester, E 2010, The profitability of the electric car (Thesis), Brigham Young University, Brigham. Hawkins, D, Mothersbaugh, D, Best, R. J 2010, Consumer behaviour: Building marketing strategy, McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, New York. Hill, S, Ettenson, T 2005, ‘Achieving the ideal brand portfolio’, Sloan Management Review, vol. 2 no.1, pp. 85-90. Hill, T, Westbrook, R 2007, ‘SWOT Analysis: It’s Time for a Product Recall’, Long Range Planning, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 46–5 2. Holt, A, Quelch, T 2009, ‘How global brands compete’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 68-75. Jin, H, Suh, J, Donavan, D 2008, ‘Salient Effects of Publicity in Advertised Brand Recall and Recognition: The List-Strength Paradigm,’ Journal of Advertising, vol. 37 no. 1, pp. 45-57. Karamitsios, A 2013, Open Innovation in EVs: A Case Study of Tesla Motors, Routledge, New York, NY. Keller, L1998, Strategy Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, NJ. Kotler, P, Adam, S, Denise, S, Armstrong 2009, Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall, Australia. Mangram, M 2012, ‘The globalisation of Tesla motors. a strategic marketing plan analysis’, Journal Of Communication Management, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 289-312. Menon, A 2006, ‘Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Strategy Making,’ Journal of Marketing, vol. 63 no. 2, pp. 18–40. Motavalli, J 2013, ‘As it increases p roduction, Tesla worried about battery supply’, The New York Times, 13 June, pp. 19-20. Roth, H 2008, The challenge of the Global Brand: Handbook on Brand And Experience Management, Columbia Business School, Columbia. Rust, T, Zeithaml, A, Lemon, N 2004, ‘Customer centred brand management’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 82 no. 4, pp. 110-118. Saxena, S 2012, ‘Challenges and Strategies for Global Branding’, Journal of Business and Management, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 38-43. Simon, H 2007, ‘Rational decision making in business organisations’, American Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 123-129. Soh, W 2011, Volkswagen brand in China. Web. Yelkur, R 2011, ‘Customer satisfaction and service marketing mix’, Journal of professional services marketing, vol. 21 no.1, pp. 105-115. This report on Volkswagen Polo Product was written and submitted by user Christina Wagner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Conceptual Domainsâ€Definition and Examples

Conceptual Domainss In studies of metaphor, a conceptual domain is the representation of any coherent segment of experience, such as love and journeys. A conceptual domain that is understood in terms of another is called a conceptual metaphor. In Cognitive English Grammar (2007),  Ã‚  G. Radden and R. Dirven describe a  conceptual domain as the general field to which a category or frame belongs in a given situation.  For example, a knife belongs  to the domain of eating when used for cutting bread on the breakfast table, but to the domain of fighting when used as a weapon. Examples and Observations In the cognitive linguistic view, a metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. . . Examples of this include when we talk and think about life in terms of journeys, about arguments in terms of war, about love also in terms of journeys, about theories in terms of buildings, about ideas in terms of food, about social organizations in terms of plants, and many others. A convenient shorthand way of capturing this view of metaphor is the following:CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (A) is CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (B), which is what is called a conceptual metaphor. A conceptual metaphor consists of two conceptual domains, in which one domain is understood in terms of another. A conceptual domain is any coherent organization of experience. Thus, for example, we have coherently organized knowledge about journeys that we rely on in understanding life...The two domains that participate in conceptual metaphor have special names. The conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions to understand another conceptual domain is called source domain, while the conceptual domain that is understood this way is the target domain. Thus, life, arguments, love, theory, ideas, social organizations, and others are target domains, while journeys, war, buildings, food, plants, and others are source domains. The target is the domain that we try to understand through the use of the source domain.Zoltn Kà ¶vecses, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2010 According to the cognitive linguistic view, a metaphor is the understanding of one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. For instance, we talk and think about love in terms of food (I hunger for you); madness (Theyre crazy about one another); the lifecycle of plants (Their love is in full bloom); or a journey (Well just have to go our separate ways). . . . Conceptual metaphor is distinguished from metaphorical linguistic expressions: the latter are words or other linguistic expressions that come from the terminology of the concept used to understand another. Therefore, all the examples in italics above are metaphorical linguistic expressions. The use of small capital letters indicates that the particular wording does not occur in language as such, but it underlies conceptually all the metaphorical expressions listed underneath it. For instance, the verb in I hunger for you is a metaphorical linguistic expression of the LOVE IS HUNGER conceptual metaphor.Rà ©ka Ben czes, Creative Compounding in English: The Semantics of Metaphorical and Metonymical Noun-Noun Combinations. John Benjamins, 2006

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Apple Incorporated and the Power of Its Brands Essay

Apple Incorporated and the Power of Its Brands - Essay Example Its goal is to substantially address the needs of its customers, but not until when it discovered the advantage of creating a need for its product and service offerings. The modern marketing emphasises that marketers are good at creating needs for their offerings (Boone and Kurtz, 2006; Kotler et al., 1999). In fact, Apple is very good at creating needs for its product and service offerings, the very basic foundation of how it tries to achieve its competitive advantage. However, as it continues to grow, Apple Incorporated has become highly recognized with its brands, which brings it at the top of the competition. Porter’s theory of competitive advantage applies to Apple Incorporated and its brands. The power of its brands is very important component of differentiation strategy (Porter, 1998). People simply associate the Apple brand with standard quality, reliability, and many other intrinsic values. This is due to the fact that brands simply emphasise attributes and meanings ( Belch and Belch, 1998). In a highly capitalist world, brands have important value that could be maximised for profit making (Arvidson, 2006). Branding is a specific marketing strategy and as a way to enhance profitability, productivity and efficiency (Moor, 2007). Moor added that branding seeks to develop political message, corporate image, people, and behaviours. It is in these reasons Apple wanted to invest more in reconstructing, refining and enhancing its brands prior to becoming a cut above the other in its industry. As widely observed, the media have always been the integral parts of Apple’s success in achieving a powerful brand in the world. As a result, Apple has become an iconic brand because it came to a point of becoming a cultural icon with corresponding identity value (Holt, 2004). There are many strategies in doing this and they are integral parts of cultural branding principles. In this paper, the proponent tries to incorporate in the analysis how Apple Incorpo rated was able to successfully achieve or create the power of its brands using the media as integral parts of communication, a specific strategy in cultural branding principles (Holt, 2004). The discussion in particular includes media, brand development, and the concept of gratification of needs based on psychological perspective. Media and brand development Media are anything with spaces that have the capacity to allow marketing to take place in them (Moor, 2007). Space is very important for Moor as a specific site to develop relationships between brands and customers. She added that it is a communicative medium or opportunity for marketing to take place. Ads are specific forms of communications placed within a communicative medium (Cook, 2001). For many years, Apple Incorporated is using the media in order to promote its brands. Mac, iPod, iPhone, iPad and iTunes are the most important brands that are established by Apple with the aid of the media. In 2006, Apple’s ad budge t is $338 million, $467 million in 2007, and $486 million in 2008 (Blakely, 2008; DeWitt, 2009). In 2009, Apple spent $501 million for Ad expense (DeWitt, 2009). There seems to be an increase in the budget allocated by Apple for its ads, but it is actually decreasing based on percentage of revenue; 5 percent in 2001 and 1.17 percent in 2009 (DeWitt, 2009). This means that the higher the revenue of Apple has become, the lesser it allocated budget for its promotional activities. This